Whitepapers: Independent Testing
FDA Informational Report (FDA)
Non-toxic to humans; safe for use around food for human consumption
Fish Toxicity Report (U.S.F.S.)
United States Forest Service Report: FireIce® found non-toxic to fish
Hazardous Interactions and pH Neutralization Report (Avomeen)
A hazardous interaction evaluation was conducted on FireIce®. Hazardous classifications stayed the same or did not increase for all of the chemicals tested. The pH of each mixture was also tested which remained identical or became more neutral compared to that of the starting chemical solution.
Lithium-ion Battery Fires Suppression and Prevention (University of Maryland and the Fire Risk Alliance)
The Fire Risk Alliance conducted a series of tests to determine the efficacy of FireIce® in extinguishing lithium-ion battery fires. The first goal of the test series was to compare the suppression performance of a 2.5-liter FireIce® extinguisher on a lithium-ion battery fire to that of a 2.5-pound Halon 1211 fire extinguisher. In the immersion of lithium-ion batteries, FireIce® demonstrated the ability to cool and create the thermal barrier necessary to extinguish. The FireIce® extinguisher was able to cool and prevent cell-to-cell fire spread extinguishing the battery fire.
Mammalian Toxicity Report (U.S.F.S.)
Non-toxic to mammals
Not Harmful to Human, Terrestrial, or Aquatic Species (GelTech)
There are no risks of acute toxic effects for aquatic wildlife in streams receiving runoff from land where FireIce® is applied to fuels (vegetation) at any coverage level (application rate) during firefighting activities, or where planned aquatic releases in normal operating dilutions such as those of the residual FireIce® in the tank of amphibious aircraft during or after water scooping operations; or issues associated with the wash-down or clean-up of mixing facilities (airtanker bases) where mixing into storm water run-off infrastructure is planned to occur.